Everything about Euro standards: from Euro 1 to Euro 6

In the late 1980s, leading European countries almost simultaneously embarked on a course of environmental security. One of the key areas of environmental policy was the fight against the toxicity of exhaust gases from cars.

In 1992 there was a milestone event for the European Union – the introduction of environmental Euro-1 ecological standard. It established the maximum permissible concentration of toxic of toxic substances in exhaust gases. The Euro-1 standard classifies cars according to emissions of pollutants. Specifically, these are nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxides Carbon oxides, hydrocarbon derivatives and soot (particulate matter).

By the time Euro-1 was introduced, the dominance of leaded gasoline had become a serious problem for the auto industry. The fuel had tetraethyl lead added to it to increase its octane rating. The high level of lead in the exhaust was the cause of of serious health problems. Under EC Directive 93 leaded gasoline has been banned. Many experts believe it is the fight against Many experts believe it was the fight against tetraethyl lead that led to the adoption of the Euro 1 standard.

Later, at intervals of several years (4-6), the EU adopted a number of following environmental standards from Euro-2 to Euro-6. Each of them seriously lowered the permissible values for the emission of toxic substances in the exhaust gases of cars. The Euro-6 standard, which is now in effect across the entire EU The Euro-6 standard, which is now in effect throughout the EU, has made the requirements for the operation of vehicles as stringent as possible.

The Euro-5 and Euro-6 standards primarily affected diesel vehicles and special-purpose vehicles, repeatedly limiting the allowable content of nitrogen oxides and soot.

What in practice

Five years ago, the International International Council on Clean Transportation (ICCT), in a a large-scale study, had disappointing figures. At that time it turned out that The real emission of nitrogen oxides of a number of diesel engines made especially for Euro-6 was seven times higher than the official norms of this standard. seven times higher than the official norms of this standard. In essence this meant that Instead of the 80 mg/km the new cars emitted into the atmosphere at least 560 mg/km of NOx.

During the experiment, hundreds of cars and trucks of different modifications from different manufacturers were tested. All of them were equipped with different exhaust gas treatment systems: SCR, EGR valves and particulate filters. EGR and particulate filters.

Between 2000 and 2015 (from Euro-3 to Euro-6), the official allowable emissions for diesel vehicles in the European Union decreased by 85%. But in reality emissions were reduced by only 40% over those 15 years.

Since 2017, automakers targeting the European market have been conducting not only laboratory tests, but also practical road tests of exhaust treatment systems and emissions measurement.

Chronology of introduction of European standards

The Euro-1 standard is mandatory for cars manufactured after January 1, 1993.

Euro-1 (EU93) banned leaded gasoline with the addition of tetraethyl lead. There was also an emphasis on reducing carbon monoxide emissions by means of a catalytic converter.

Euro-2 (EC96) – mandatory for cars made after January 1, 1997.

Euro-2 was primarily intended to reduce the amount of unburned hydrocarbons in the exhaust gases and increase the efficiency of the engines. At the same time, the emission standards for NOx and CO were tightened.

Simultaneously with the introduction of Euro-2, a ban on the sale of gasoline with an octane number less than 95 came into force in Europe.

Euro-3 is obligatory for the cars made after January 1, 2001. In this standard for the first time was written the limit on the time of the engine heating.

The maximum permissible concentration of sulfur in gasoline was reduced from 500 g/km to 150 g/km. When developing new engines for the Euro-3 standard, there were regular difficulties related to the change of the injection system, which seriously reduced the engine output.

Euro-4 is mandatory for cars manufactured after January 1, 2006.

The introduction of Euro-4 was the beginning of a “large-scale attack” on diesel engines. With the advent of this standard, manufacturers for the first time began to equip a number of vehicles with diesel particulate filters.

Beginning in 2005, each vehicle had to have a certificate,
to show that the engine complies with the Euro 4 standard. The permissible values of harmful substances here were reduced by another 70%. Experts say one of the reasons for such delay is unwillingness of the authorities to provoke the serious rise in prices for the Russian cars.

Euro-5 is obligatory for the cars made after September 2009. Initially the standard Originally the standard applied only to trucks, for cars it became compulsory a year later.

The new Euro-5 requirements affected diesel engines to a greater extent. A serious emphasis was made on reduction of soot emissions. At this stage, the particulate filter became obligatory attribute of a car in the EU.

Euro-5 also seriously affected the fuel market. Before 2015, gasoline and diesel fuel that did not meet the new parameters were withdrawn from circulation in its entirety.

Developers of engines of this generation began to take into account the possibility of
conversion to the following standards.

Euro-6 is mandatory for cars produced after September 2015.

The standard has very seriously tightened the requirements for diesel engines. Permissible emissions of toxic substances have been reduced by an average of 3 times. For example, the maximum allowable NOx emission was reduced from 2 to 0.4 g/kWh.

If we compare Euro-5 and Euro-6 for different types of vehicles, we can see a curious peculiarity. Euro-6 does not practically change the regulations for gasoline engines. On the contrary, diesels are hit hard because of the notorious nitrogen oxides Nitrogen oxides, which they produce in large quantities. Today, environmentalists are trending towards the version that that nitrogen oxides are many times more harmful than even carbon monoxide because they lead to acid rain and the formation of photochemical smog.

In accordance with the requirements of Euro-6, the allowable content of nitrogen oxides is reduced 5 times, residual hydrocarbons – 3,5 times, particulate matter – 2 times.

As a result the leading automobile concerns had to invest hundreds of millions euros in technologies of neutralization of nitrogen and soot. In particular, selective catalytic selective catalytic reduction systems and particulate filters have been improved.

The installation and maintenance of expensive equipment on Euro 6 vehicles naturally increases the total cost per vehicle. In addition, the use of AdBlue technology is associated with constant and serious inconvenience.

An interesting paradox of the environmental policy of the European Union. Back in the late 90’s. the purchase of diesel cars was positioned there as the best solution in the context of the environment and was even stimulated with the help of tax preferences. As a result, today the share of diesel cars in the European Union is more than 50%. The introduction of Euro 4, Euro 5 and Euro 6 standards radically changed the situation. Now diesel engines have become an object of criticism and attacks by environmentalists.

Above all, diesel cars are under threat. Segments such as heavy-duty trucks, heavy-duty special vehicles, agricultural equipment are unlikely to be seriously affected. For these “ranges” of diesel vehicles, in principle, there is no alternative.

In many countries, the introduction of Euro-5 and Euro-6 standards is associated with a number of serious problems. The analyzer automatically lowers the engine speed when low-grade fuel is loaded. As a result, the engine may come to a complete standstill and, as a consequence, an accident.

Today, most owners of commercial diesel vehicles go the way of disabling SCR, EGR and particulate filter. In many countries, unlike in the European Union, the procedures of switching off are legal. The only real problem in this case may be problems with the warranty car warranty service.

The automotive electronics market is flooded with cheap, low-quality emulators from China. A number of companies also regularly “throws” on the market “consumer goods”, made, as a rule, by homemade method. But the real warranty of several years for emergency modules is given only by leading manufacturers in the industry. And this warranty really works. The choice of the optimal SCR, EGR and particulate filter deactivation option directly the efficient operation of the vehicle for years to come.

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